Cadmium (Cd)

Stable isotopes of cadmium available from ISOFLEX

Isotope Z(p) N(n) Atomic Mass Natural Abundance Enrichment Level Chemical Form
Cd-106 48 58 105.90646 1.25% 81.00-99.00%  Metal 
Cd-106 48  58  105.90646  1.25%  81.00-99.00%  Oxide 
Cd-108 48 60 107.90418 0.89% 66.00-99.00%  Metal
Cd-108 48  60  107.90418  0.89%  66.00-99.00%  Oxide 
Cd-110 48 62 109.903006 12.49% 95.00-99.00%  Metal 
Cd-110 48  62  109.903006  12.49%  95.00-99.00%  Oxide 
Cd-111 48 63 110.904182 12.80% 95.00-97.50%  Metal 
Cd-111 48  63  110.904182  12.80%  95.00-97.50%  Oxide 
Cd-112 48 64 111.902758 24.13% 88.00-98.00%  Metal 
Cd-112 48  64  111.902758  24.13%  88.00-98.00%  Oxide 
Cd-113 48 65 112.904402 12.22% 93.00-96.00%  Metal 
Cd-113 48  65  112.904402  12.22%  93.00-96.00%  Oxide 
Cd-114 48 66 113.903359 28.73% 99.00%  Metal 
Cd-114 48  66  113.903359  28.73%  99.00%  Oxide 
Cd-116  48  68  115.904756 7.49%  99.00%  Metal 
Cd-116 48  68  115.904756  7.49%  99.00%  Oxide

Request a Quote

Cd

Cadmium was discovered in 1817 by Friedrich Strohmeyer. Its name originates with the Latin word cadmia (meaning "calamine" or "zinc carbonate") as well as the Greek word kadmeia, with the same meaning.

Cadmium is a bluish-white lustrous soft metal with a close-packed hexagonal system. It is insoluble in water. The metal is slowly oxidized in moist air at ordinary temperatures, forming a protective coating of cadmium oxide. The element combines with many nonmetals upon heating, forming its binary salts. It combines with halogens when heated, forming the corresponding halides. The metal is attacked by mineral acids. Reactions with hot dilute nitric acid give various oxides of nitrogen and hydrogen. Aqueous solutions of alkali hydroxides do not attack cadmium.

Cadmium replaces elements that are less electropositive in the activity series from their salt solutions. It can displace a number of metals that are less active, such as copper, lead, silver, mercury, tin and antimony from their aqueous salt solutions. It is used for electroplating, to impart a protective coating on iron and steel. It provides resistance against caustic alkalis.

A major application is in the nickel-cadmium storage battery, where it enhances long service life and a wide operating range. Cadmium alloys also find wide applications in bearing metals, solders, fusible metals, electrical conductors, power transmission wires and jewelry. Cadmium electrodes are used in photoelectric cells, cadmium vapor lamps and selenium rectifiers. Graphite impregnated with cadmium is used in electrical controller switches, oil-less bearings and busing lines. Cadmium rods are used in nuclear reactors to absorb low-energy neutrons.

Properties of Cadmium

Name Cadmium 
Symbol Cd 
Atomic number 48 
Atomic weight 112.41 
Standard state Solid at 298 °K 
CAS Registry ID 7440-43-9 
Group in periodic table 12 
Group name None 
Period in periodic table
Block in periodic table d-block 
Color Silvery gray metallic 
Classification Metallic 
Melting point 321.1 °C
Boiling point 765 °C
Vaporization point 767 °C
Thermal conductivity 97 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 6.83 µΩ·cm at 0 °C 
Electronegativity 1.7 
Specific heat 230 J/(kg·K) 
Heat of vaporization 100 kJ·mol-1 
Heat of fusion 6.3 kJ·mol-1
Density of liquid 7.996 g/cm3 at 321.1 °C
Density of solid 8.65 g/cm3 
Electron configuration [Kr]4d105s
Ionization potential 8.994 eV 
Standard electrode potential Eº = -0.40 V
Oxidation state  +2 

ISOFLEX-logo-no fill