Vanadium (V)

Stable isotopes of vanadium available from ISOFLEX

Isotope Z(p) N(n) Atomic Mass Natural Abundance Enrichment Level Chemical Form
V-50  23  27  49.947163 0.25%  >55.00% Oxide
V-51  23  28  50.943964 99.75%  >99.90% Oxide

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Vanadium was discovered in 1801 by both Manuel del Rio and Nils Sefström. Its name derives from that of Vanadis, the goddess of beauty in Scandinavian mythology.

Vanadium is a bright, silvery-white, ductile solid with a body-centered cubic structure. It is insoluble in water, dilute sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid and alkalis. It is resistant to corrosion but soluble in nitric, hydrofluoric and concentrated sulfuric acids. It can act as either a metal or a nonmetal, and it forms a variety of complex compounds and is nontoxic as metal.

Vanadium forms four oxides: the light gray monoxide, VO; the blue-black dioxide, VO2; the black sesquioxide, V2O3; and the orange-red pentoxide, V2O5. It also combines with chlorine on heating, producing three known chlorides: the green dichloride, VCl2; the pink trichloride, VCl3; and the brown-red tetrachloride, VCl4.

Among its industrial applications, vanadium is added to steel for high resistance to oxidation and to stabilize carbide. The foil is used for cladding titanium to steel, and a vanadium-gallium alloy is used in making superconductive magnets.

Properties of Vanadium

Name Vanadium 
Atomic number 23 
Atomic weight 50.9415 
Standard state Solid at 298 °K 
CAS Registry ID 7440-62-2 
Group in periodic table
Group name None 
Period in periodic table
Block in periodic table d-block 
Color Silvery gray metallic 
Classification Metallic 
Melting point 1910 °C
Boiling point 3380 °C
Vaporization point 3407 °C
Thermal conductivity 30.7 W/(m·K) at 298.2 °K
Electrical resistivity 18.1 µΩ·cm at 0 °C 
Electronegativity 1.6
Specific heat 0.39 kJ/kg K 
Heat of vaporization 453 kJ·mol-1
Heat of fusion 22.8 kJ·mol-1
Density of solid 5.96 g/cm3
Electron configuration [Ar] 3d34s
Atomic radius 1.34 Å 
Ionic radius V2+: 0.79 Å, V3+: 0.64 Å, V4+: 0.58 Å,
and V5+: 0.54 Å (coordination number 6)
Oxidation states  +2, +3, +4, +5 

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