Stable isotopes of europium available from ISOFLEX
|Isotope||Z(p)||N(n)||Atomic Mass||Natural Abundance||Enrichment Level||Chemical Form|
The discovery and isolation of europium are generally credited to Eugène-Anatole Demarçay, who successfully isolated the element in 1901. He named it after Europe.
A steel-gray metal with a body-centered cubic crystal lattice, europium is difficult to prepare. It is quite soft and malleable. It oxidizes rapidly in air and may burn spontaneously. It is the most reactive of the rare earth metals; it liberates hydrogen from water; and it reduces metallic oxides. It reacts with water and is soluble in liquid ammonia.
Europium is used for the capture of thermal neutrons for nuclear control rods in atomic power stations. While its salts are used in coatings for cathode ray tubes in color televisions, organoderivatives are used in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.
Properties of Europium
|Standard state||Solid at 298 ºK|
|CAS Registry ID||7440-53-1|
|Group in periodic table||N/A|
|Period in periodic table||6 (lanthanoid)|
|Block in periodic table||f-block|
|Melting point||822 °C|
|Boiling point||1597 °C|
|Vaporization point||1596 ºC|
|Thermal conductivity||13.9 W/(m·K) at 298.2 ºK|
|Electrical resistivity||90.0 µΩ·cm at 25 ºC|
|Specific heat||0.176 J/g mol at 20 ºC|
|Heat of vaporization||175 kJ·mol-1|
|Heat of fusion||9.2 kJ·mol-1|
|Density of liquid||5.13 g/cm3 at 822 °C|
|Density of solid||5.26 g/cm3|
|Electron configuration||[Xe]4f65d16s2 (partially filled orbitals)|
|Oxidation states||+2, +3|