Stable isotopes of gallium available from ISOFLEX
|Isotope||Z(p)||N(n)||Atomic Mass||Natural Abundance||Enrichment Level||Chemical Form|
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Gallium was discovered in 1875 by Paul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran. It takes its name from the Latin name Gallia, meaning “France,” and possibly also from the Latin word gallus, meaning “rooster” (and reflecting the discoverer's name, Lecoq). It is one of the few metals that can be liquid near room temperature, which makes it an effective feature of high-temperature thermometers. It can be undercooled to almost 0 °C without solidifying, and it is actually more dense as a liquid than as a solid.
Gallium is a gray orthogonal crystal or silvery liquid. It is soluble in acids and alkalis and slightly soluble in mercury. It reacts with most metals at high temperatures. Gallium exists in a liquid state in the widest temperature range. Chemical properties of gallium fall between those of aluminum and indium. It combines with phosphorus, arsenic and antimony, forming the corresponding binary compounds, which exhibit interesting semiconductor properties.
The most important use of gallium is as a doping agent for semiconductors, transistors and other solid-state devices. Some gallium compounds also have major applications in electroluminescent light emission, microwave generation and UV-activated powder phosphors. Another important use of gallium, in oxide form, involves the spectroscopic analysis of uranium oxide. Gallium also is used to make many low-melting alloys. Some other uses for gallium are in high-vacuum systems as a liquid sealant, as a heat-transfer medium, and to produce mirrors on glass surfaces.
Properties of Gallium
|Standard state||Solid at 298 °K|
|CAS Registry ID||7440-55-3|
|Group in periodic table||13|
|Period in periodic table||4|
|Block in periodic table||p-block|
|Color||Silvery white or gray|
|Melting point||29.6 °C|
|Boiling point||2403 °C|
|Thermal conductivity||28.1 W/(m·K) at 302.93 °K|
|Electrical resistivity||17.4 µΩ·cm at 20 °C|
|Specific heat||0.372 J/g mol at 20 °C|
|Heat of vaporization||256 kJ·mol-1|
|Heat of fusion||5.59 kJ·mol-1|
|Density of liquid||6.095 g/cm3|
|Density of solid||5.91 g/cm3|
|Ionic radius||Ga3+: 1.13 Å|
|Most common oxidation state||+3 (also exhibits +2 and +1)|
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