Titanium (Ti)

Stable isotopes of titanium available from ISOFLEX

Isotope Z(p) N(n) Atomic Mass Natural Abundance Enrichment Level Chemical Form
Ti-46  22  24  45.952629 8.25%  97.00% Oxide
Ti-47  22  25  46.951764 7.44%  >95.00% Oxide
Ti-48  22  26  47.947947 73.72%  >96.00% Oxide
Ti-49  22  27  48.947871 5.41%  47.60-92.40% Oxide
Ti-50  22  28  49.944792 5.18%  83.00% Oxide

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Titanium was discovered in 1791 by Reverend William Gregor, who recognized the presence of the element in menachanite, a mineral named after Menaccan in Cornwall, England. It takes its name from the Titans, the sons of Gaia, the Earth goddess in Greek mythology.

A white lustrous metal that is ductile when free of oxygen, titanium is also a low-density, high-strength metal, as strong as steel but 45% lighter. It has two allotropic modifications. The alpha form has a close-packed hexagonal crystal structure, a density of 4.54 g/cm3 at 20 ºC, and is stable up to 882 ºC. It converts very slowly to a body-centered cubic beta form at 882 ºC. The density of the beta form is 4.40 g/cm3 at an estimated 900 ºC.

Titanium metal is highly resistant to corrosion. It is unaffected by atmospheric air, moisture and sea water, allowing many of its industrial applications. The metal burns incandescently in air at about 1200 ºC, forming titanium dioxide. The metal also burns on contact with liquid oxygen. It combines with nitrogen at about 800 ºC, forming the nitride and producing heat and light. Titanium reacts with all halogens at high temperatures. It is soluble in hot concentrated sulfuric acid, forming sulfate, and with hydrofluoric acid, forming fluoride.

Elemental titanium is found in plants, animals, eggs and milk. Its alloys have wide industrial applications, as they possess high tensile strength, are lightweight, and can withstand extreme temperatures. They are often used in the construction of aircraft and missiles. They have also been used in medical prostheses, orthopedic and dental implants, dental and endodontic instruments and files, dental implants, jewelry and mobile phones.

Properties of Titanium

Name Titanium 
Symbol Ti 
Atomic number 22 
Atomic weight 47.867 
Standard state Solid at 298 °K
CAS Registry ID 7440-32-6 
Group in periodic table
Group name None 
Period in periodic table
Block in periodic table d-block 
Color Silvery metallic 
Classification Metallic 
Melting point 1610 +/- 10 °C
Boiling point 3287 °C
Thermal conductivity 21.9 W/(m·K) at 298.2 °K
Electrical resistivity 42.0 µΩ·cm at 20 °C 
Electronegativity 1.5 
Specific heat 0.54 kJ/kg K
Heat of vaporization 425 kJ·mol-1
Heat of fusion 18.7 kJ·mol-1
Density of solid 4.54 g/cm3
Electron configuration [Ar]3d24s2 
Atomic radius 1.47 Å 
Ionic radius Ti3+: 0.67 Å and Ti4+: 0.61 Å (coordination number 6)
Oxidation states  +2, +3, +4 


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